ETHIOPIAN JOURNAL OF SPORT SCIENCE 2024-03-16T16:57:56+00:00 Dr. Amensisa Kebede Open Journal Systems <p>The journal is a peer-reviewed open access following creative common open access license, doesn't charge to the user or his/her institution. It is inter and multidisciplinary journal published by Ethiopian sport academy. The journal is dedicated to expanding access to Ethiopian sport research, increasing scientific collaboration, and building academic research capacity by linking the outcomes to the sport industry. All content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. The journal accepts articles from different scholars with maximum of two per issue for the same author. The number of research papers to be published for editorial members, reviewers and editorial board members in sum will not be more than three per issue. While the minimum number of research papers per volume is ten. The journal aims to provide a modern, highly-visible platform for publishing Ethiopian sport-related scientific original research papers, systematic and scholarly review articles, and critical papers without any fee request from Authors.</p> The Impacts of Psychological Skill Training on Mental Toughness among Male Under 17 Project Football Players in Akaki Kality sub-city Addis Ababa Ethiopia. 2024-01-17T17:43:08+00:00 Atsede Fenta Abebe Eshetu <p><em>Psychological skills training program is effective in enhancing athletes’ performance, positively influencing cognitive and affective states</em>.<em> The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Psychological skill training on Mental Toughness variables</em> <em>among male Under 17 football project players in Akaki Kality sub-city Addis Ababa Ethiopia. The methodology of the study employed an &nbsp;&nbsp;experimental research design. Thirty (30) male football player participants in the study were selected for the Mesale football project. The study subjects were randomly divided into two equal groups, the experimental group (n = 15) and the control group (n = 15). The experimental group had taken Psychological skill training intervention for 8 weeks with 3 sessions per week, each lasting 30 to 45 minutes. It consists of goal setting; self-talk, pep talk, imagery, progressive relaxation techniques, arousal regulation, and relaxation response techniques were given through 3 phases which comprise educational, acquisitions and practical phases by sports psychologists. Both groups had taken pre- and post-testing and all the subjects participated to response standard questionnaires: mental toughness was measured using Sport Mental Toughness Questionnaires </em>(SMTQ-14)<em>. The data collected from the study subjects was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS, version 20) software by descriptive statistics, paired t-test and independent t-test at a significant level of 0.05. Results showed Psychological skill training significantly improved the stated variables of mental toughness in the experimental group at (p&lt;0.05). Furthermore, no more significant differences were found these variables in the control group (p&gt;0.05). Based on this finding, it can be concluded that Psychological skill training has a positive impact on the improvement of mental toughness variable.</em> <em>Therefore, Psychological skill training is suggested for adolescent-age football players to improve psychological preparedness for athletic performance. </em></p> 2024-01-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ETHIOPIAN JOURNAL OF SPORT SCIENCE Acute Effects of Stretching Types during Warm up on Selected Skill Related Performances at Ethiopian Defense Sport Club Middle Distance Athlete 2024-01-18T12:55:40+00:00 Sintayehu Kasahun Kiminad Amensisa Kebede Legesse (Ph.D) <p><em>The purpose of this study was determined the acute effect of stretching types during warm up on selected skill related performances and its association with the occurrence of injury during training and competition at Ethiopian defense athletics sport club. The total athletes selected for this study were (N=30) fourteen male and fourteen female with age range of 18-24. The athletes were oriented about the test and its objective, There was no control group in this study. An experimental group used for intervention after grouped for three. The athletes were assigned randomly for three groups having different week of stretching introduction during warm up but same training. Every group will have the intervention of no stretching, static and dynamic stretching weeks for three times interchangeably. The intervention lasts for nine weeks. After the intervention from one stretching type to the others the tests were taken at the fifth day of every week.&nbsp; One-way repeated measures ANOVA were conducted to compare scores on all tests across groups while repeated measure of ANOVA was employed to check the performance difference of the athletes while having different stretching week. Based up on the test there is a significant difference in athletes, agility, Broad Jump and 400m performance during dynamic stretching than static and No stretching. Better Activeness were reported during Dynamic Stretching-3 (DS-3) mean=4.46±.33, static stretching-3 (SS-3) mean=4.23±.42, and No Stretching-3 (NS-3) mean=3.54±.88. 7. In addition to this Better Pace Performance test result shows that DS-3 mean=4.55±.32, SS-3 mean=4.34±.56, and NS-3 mean=4.34±.27. Furthermore the Consistency of Performance test result shows that DS-3 mean= 4.63±.42, SS-3mean=4.63 ±.42, and NS-3 mean=4.42 ± .28. , There was a significant effect for Activeness/Direct Enrollment scores During Dynamic stretching time training.&nbsp; Activeness average score which is close to very good and followed by static stretching which is close to good. There is also a significant decline for Activeness/Direct Enrollment on athletes during no stretching time which is less than good. On the other hand there was no significant effect for Better Pace/Consistency and Consistency of Performance but average score mean of dynamic stretching has shown better result than static stretching and no stretching. From the data collected it is concluded that the dynamic stretching has a better effect on agility broad jump and, 400m performance followed by static and No stretching. A significant better accomplishment of Activeness during dynamic stretching was recorded followed by static and No stretching .Thus it is concluded that overall dynamic stretching can support for better performance than static and no-stretching performance.</em></p> 2023-10-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Comparative Effects of Plyometric Training and Circuit Training on Physiological and Physical Fitness Variables in U-17 Male Football Trainees 2024-01-18T13:03:59+00:00 Emebet Fikre <p><em>This quasi-experimental study aimed to investigate and compare the effects of an 8-week plyometric training program and a circuit training program on selected physiological and physical fitness variables in U-17 male football trainees from the Ethiopian Sport Academy. The study involved 22 participants, who were randomly assigned to either the plyometric training group or the circuit training group. Measurements of speed, power, agility, resting heart rate, and respiratory rate were taken before and after the training programs. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS ver.20 and paired t-tests, with a significance level of 0.05. The results showed that the plyometric training group significantly improved in power (p=0.00, p&lt;0.05), speed (p=0.00, p&lt;0.05), and agility (p=0.00, p&lt;0.05). The circuit training group significantly improved in speed (p=0.00, p&lt;0.05), resting heart rate (p=0.00, p&lt;0.05), and respiratory rate (p=0.00, p&lt;0.05). Resting heart rate and respiratory rate did not show significant differences in the plyometric training group (p&gt;0.05). Similarly, power and agility did not significantly improve in the circuit training group (p&gt;0.05). Based on these findings, it can be concluded that an 8-week circuit training program has positive effects on speed, resting heart rate, and respiratory rate, while plyometric training has positive effects on speed, power, and agility. Accordingly, it is recommended that a combined session of circuit and plyometric training may lead to significant improvements in physiological and physical fitness variables in male football trainees.</em></p> 2023-10-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Comparative Study on Time Management Skill and Decision-Making Skill in Youth and Sport Offices of Mekelle and Central Zones in Tigrai Regional State 2024-01-18T13:09:32+00:00 Girma Reta Shishay Weldeslassie Gerenchal <p><em>The purpose of this study was to compare the time management skill and decision-making skill in the youth and sport offices of Mekelle and Central Zones. This study includes both the governmental and nongovernmental bodies. Comparative survey specifically, Cross-sectional design was used to compare the four groups means Mekelle and Central Zone governmental and non-governmental bodies each other. The researcher used simple random sampling technique to select ten Woredas and Sub city youth and sport offices from the -19- Woredas and Sub-cities of the two Zones. The researcher also used purposive sampling technique to select the whole population (108) of the selected Woredas youth and sport offices as a respondent. A total of -23- self-made but standardized 5 liker test questionnaire and 5 unstructured interviews were used in order to collect concrete and relevant information about the above two variables. Pilot study was conducted to check the reliability of the questionnaires and the result of the test of reliability Alpha coefficient was 0.642 and 0 .845 for time management skill and decision-making skill respectively. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the time management skill and decision-making skills of youth and sport offices of Mekelle and central zone among the governmental and non-governmental bodies. Post-Hoc LSD multiple comparison was applied to identify the differences between the various groups in the youth and sport offices of Mekelle and Central zone. The results obtained through post hoc multiple comparisons proved that, there were statistically significance difference among the governmental and non-governmental bodies in youth and sport offices of Mekelle and Central Zones on their time management skill and decision-making skill.</em></p> 2023-10-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Health-Related Physical Fitness and Academic Performance in Asgori Secondary School, Southwest Shewa Zone, Ethiopia 2024-01-18T13:17:10+00:00 Baharu Ayane Samson Wondirad Adugna Belachew <p><em>The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between health-related physical fitness and academic performance in Asgori Secondary School. The study was conducted on students of grade 12<sup>th</sup> of Asgori secondary school, located in Elu Woreda, Southwest Shewa Zone, Ethiopia. This study used cross-sectional research design. The four components (body composition, flexibility, muscular strength and cardiorespiratory endurance) of HRPF were found to have a significant impact on students' academic performance. The cardiovascular endurance (2-mile running) and muscular strength (push-up test) of the students have been found to positively influenced the academic performance (P &lt; 0.05). This study suggests that cardiovascular endurance and muscle strength of students are found to be significantly impacting students' performance.</em></p> 2023-10-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Effect of Plyometric Training on agility and vertical Jump U- 15 Male Handball Project in kembata tambaro Zone 2024-01-18T13:24:36+00:00 Tesfaye Dolebo Awano <p><em>The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of plyometric exercise in improving explosive power, speed, flexibility&nbsp; and agility performance .To achieve the purpose of the study 25 male&nbsp;&nbsp; handball project were selected as target group and their age was U-15 years. They were assigned in two groups Experimental and control group and the selected exercises were given for 12 weeks. The variables which were selected for this study 35m sprint, pro-agility (T-'test), V sit and reach test, and vertical jump were measured. Pre and post tests were conducted for all 25 male study target group and the test results were recorded. The collected data were analyzed by paired sample t-test and independent t-test using SPSS version twenty one (V.21). Descriptive statistics concerns the development of certain measures from the raw data. Under the descriptive statistics, the study encompasses that the Mean, Standard deviation, percentages, and Correlation was used for this study. Charts/graphs were employed to illustrate and elaborate on the results of records. Pearson product-moment correlation was also employed to associate the relationship between the plyometric exercise effects on player’s physical fitness. Plyometric training program have shown significant improvement on agility, power and flexibility performance of Kembata tambaro zone handball project players.</em></p> 2023-10-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Effects 6 weeks of Psychological Skill training on the dribbling skills of male U-20 football project players 2024-01-18T17:47:48+00:00 Eshetu Birhanu Ebdo Abebe Eshetu <p><em>Football Training programs need to incorporate different forms of training components, which&nbsp;includes&nbsp;physical, technical, tactical and psychological. Psychological skills training (PST) is a process that relates to the development of daily routine activities and capability in relation to settings in sport and exercise. This study aims to search effects of 6 weeks psychological skills training on football skills of male U-20 in Dilla Gedeo Zone, Ethiopia. To achieve this objective, the researcher selected twenty five (N=25) male football players using comprehensive sampling. Their age between 17-19 years (Mean ± SD: age 18.04 ±.77years, height 168±15.25, body mass 59.95±8.72kg) selected. The trainees were regularly participated in Psychological skill training program three days/week for six weeks fifteen up to forty minutes. Informal design (quasi-experimental) and quantitative methods were used in this study. The football skill variable selected for this study was football dribbling (slalom dribbling test). Data was taken two times at pre-training and post training and, the data was analyzed using SPSS software version 24. A mean difference between pre-training and post-training was contrasted by Paired T-test. The results revealed that significant differences were observed on football skills of the trainees were improved due to the psychological skill training that was given. After six weeks, the trainee’s football skills namely dribbling skill (p=0.000) was significantly improved after psychological skill training (p=0.05). This study assured that after psychological skill training significantly improves football skill of male U-20 football players.</em></p> 2023-10-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Relationship between Leadership Styles and Team Cohesion of Amhara League Volleyball Players; In Ethiopia 2024-01-18T17:53:45+00:00 Gizachew Birhanu <p><em>Leadership styles have a different effect on the cohesion level of players. Therefore the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between leadership styles and team cohesion of Amhara league volleyball players, </em><em>Ethiopia. The study employed 11 volleyball teams (N = 124) that participated in Amhara league volleyball competition. Therefore, participants were selected by using comprehensive sampling methods so that all volleyball players in the 11 Amhara league teams were samples of the study. Each athlete completed, a Group environment questionnaire, to measure team cohesion, and a leadership scale for sport for </em><em>leadership</em> <em>style. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics Mean and standard deviation, and Pearson correlation and the result showed that training and instruction style was the player’s most perceived coaching style and autocratic style was the least and there is a positive and significant relationship found between task cohesion and all </em><em>leadership</em> <em>styles except autocratic style and social cohesion with all </em><em>leadership</em> <em>styles except social support style. This indicates that coaches should use different leadership styles to develop their player’s team cohesion.</em></p> 2023-10-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Effect of Resistance Training on Health- Related Physical Fitness Components of Dilla University Sport Science Students 2024-01-18T17:58:18+00:00 Abera Dessalegn Samuel Melese <p><em>The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of resistance training on health-related physical fitness components.&nbsp; The study employed experimental research design. Thirty Dilla University third year sport science students were taken with experimental and control group and divided randomly into two equal groups. Both the exercise group (experimental group, n = 15) and control group (controlled group, n = 15) had taken pre- and post-testing of 3-minute step test, push-up and sit-up test, sit and reach test and shoulder flexibility test, and navy method to assess cardio-respiratory fitness, muscular endurance, flexibility and body composition respectively. Only experimental group participated in additional eight weeks resistance training interventions. The data collected from the study subject were analyzed using SPSS version 25 software by using descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (paired t-test and independent t-test) with level of significant 0.05. The results showed that resistance training significantly improved the stated variables muscular endurance and body composition but not cardio-respiratory fitness and flexibility in experimental group at (p&lt;0.05). Furthermore, no more significant differences were found in all of the variables in controlled group (p&gt;0.05). Based on this finding, it can be concluded that resistance training has positive impact on improvement of muscular endurance and body composition variables. But resistance training has poor relationship with cardio-respiratory fitness and flexibility. </em></p> 2023-10-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Effects of Moderate Intensity Continuous Training on Fasting Blood Sugar Level on Type II Diabetes Mellitus of Outpatient Individual In Case of Entoto Number Two Health Center in Addis Ababa Ethiopia 2024-01-18T18:03:07+00:00 Abebe Eshetu Helen Mekonnen <p><em>The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate intensity continuous training on</em><em> fasting blood sugar level on type II diabetes mellitus of outpatient individual in case of Entoto number two health center in Addis Ababa Ethiopia.</em><em> The methodology of the study was employed experimental research design. Thirty (20 male and 10 female DM patients) middle age participants in the study were selected in Entoto No2 Health Center.&nbsp; The study subjects were randomly divided into two equal groups, such as the EG (n = 15) and CG (n = 15). The EG had taken MICT for 8 weeks with 3 sessions per week, each lasting 30 to 60 minutes. It consists basic Aerobic exercise of MICT (walking, machine exercise, aerobic dance). Pre-and-post medical examination were administered for all participants; the fasting blood sugar was measured by glucometer, The data collected from the study subjects was analyzed using SPSS version 26 software by descriptive statistics, paired t-test and independent t test at significant level of 0.05. Cohen-d&gt;0.5 was employed to summarize health status. Result showed MICT significantly improved fasting blood sugar, p&lt;0.05. Based on this finding, it can be concluded that MICT significantly affect blood sugar level, Therefore, MICT is suggested to middle age diabetic mellitus patients for improving health related status.</em></p> 2023-10-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Instructional Approaches in Physical Fitness Course: in Case of Higher Education 2024-01-18T18:09:09+00:00 Demisse Gashu Walle <p><em>Physical fitness, as a specific field in higher education which require special approaches, in addition to educational methods, in the instructional process. The goal of this review is to point out the importance and role of pedagogical methods and sports training approaches in instruction of physical fitness. The practice approach is considered the most important as most tasks are completed through practice, while the living words approach and demonstration approach are used more during the early learning. In addition, approaches from sports training (standard repetition training approaches, modified exercise approaches) also play an important role. Original longitudinal research offers greater opportunities to discover new scientific laws, which is recommended for future researchers on this topic.</em></p> 2023-10-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Early Childhood Stimulation (ECS) through Play-based teaching to improve the Math skills of Children Aged 5 in Muday Charity Association kindergarten in Addis Ababa. 2024-01-18T18:17:13+00:00 Abera Assefa <p><em>The current study sought to investigate the effect of early childhood stimulation (ECS) through play-based teaching to improve the math skills of children aged 5 at the Muday Charity Association kindergarten in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The research was conducted between randomly selected experimental groups (n = 11, 5 years) and control groups (n = 11, 5 years), using two groups of design before and after the test. The results of the study depicted that there was a significant rank difference between the two groups after the intervention was carried out. Moreover, the Mann-Whiny U test result revealed that there were significant differences in post-test results between the Experimental and Control groups on Math skill results, (U=27.50, P=.028). Hence, teachers who are working with early childhood in general and math teachers, in particular, should be aware of the significance of play-based math teaching and should work on adopting different games and materials that align with specific math concepts. </em></p> 2023-10-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 A Comparative Analysis of Physiological and Psychological Effects of Exercising in Indoor Versus Outdoor Environments: Implications for Mood, Motivation, Perceived Exertion, and Exercise Program Adherence on Rori Hotel Gym Clients, Hawassa 2024-03-16T16:57:56+00:00 Abera Dessalegn <p><em>The purpose of this study was to investigate the differential impacts of indoor and outdoor exercise environments on the physiological and psychological responses of Rori Hotel gym clients in Hawassa, with a focus on mood, motivation, perceived exertion, and exercise program adherence. The research employs a comparative analysis methodology, utilizing both quantitative measures and qualitative assessments. Participants engaged in exercise sessions both indoors and outdoors, with physiological parameters such as heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation being monitored. Additionally, self-reported measures including mood, motivation levels, perceived exertion, and adherence to exercise programs were recorded through standardized questionnaires and interviews. Preliminary findings suggest that exercising in outdoor environments elicits a significantly more positive effect on mood and motivation compared to indoor exercise. Moreover, participants reported lower perceived exertion levels during outdoor sessions, indicating a potentially greater enjoyment of the activity. Physiological responses, while varied, indicate a trend towards increased oxygen saturation and lower heart rates during outdoor exercise. These results have important implications for designing exercise programs tailored to the preferences and needs of Rori Hotel gym clients in Hawassa. By incorporating outdoor exercise opportunities, hotel management can potentially enhance client satisfaction, motivation, and adherence to fitness routines. Further research is recommended to explore long-term effects and specific demographic influences on these findings.</em></p> 2023-12-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024